Further Reading

The article titled “Animal Liberation and Rights” by Jonathan Benthall goes into detail about the different groups advocating for animals rights and, as well, explains the animal rights movement as a whole.  Within the article there is specific insight on the thoughts of people who believe humans are above animals.  This article can directly relate to our topic of speciesism vs. anti-speciesism because the author argues, by powerful word choice and disturbing images, that anti-speciesism needs to come to a stop.  He quotes Darwin, “the difference in mind between man and the higher animals certainly is one of degree and not kind”.  This means that all animals may be at a different degree of development, but that should not be a factor in determining one species more powerful and worthy of rights any more than a different species (speciesism).

Benthall, Jonathan. “Animal Liberation and Rights.” Anthropology Today 23.2 (2007): 1-3.JSTOR. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4620341>.


An article in Environews titled “Alternatives in Animal Testing” was about the three “R’s” of animal testing.  They are: refine, reduce, and replace.  There are groups of activists and many meetings being held in order to find alternatives to testing products on animals.  Animal testing is a perfect example of anti-speciesism.  It is perfectly acceptable to harm animals for the benefit of humans, but would be inhumane if humans were the subjects being tested.   One scientist in the article even said that animal testing is necessary for the protection of human health.  Some people think it is okay if animal testing is only done on mice and rats, but that is still a form of anti-speciesism.

“Altneratives in Animal Testing.” Environmental Health Perspectives 104.3 (1996): 250-252.JSTOR. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3432876>.


The article “Animal tool use: current definitions and an updated comprehensive catalog” defines the way animals use tools and also provides examples/documentations of animals that use tools.  There are specific observations of animals actually using different tools to perform tasks.  The fact that animals have the mental capacities to learn how to use tools effectively is a key ingredient in arguing that humans should not be held above other species.  Other species are more relatable to humans than many realize.  They can use technology, they can hurt, and evidence shows they can communicate in their own way. Non-human animals should not be stripped of their rights just because they are not as evolutionarily advanced as humans yet.  By being prejudice and acting more superior to these species, humans are demonstrating a sort of racism towards animals known as anti-speciesism.

Bentley-Condit, Vicki, Smith, E.O. “Animal Tool Use: Current Definitions and an Updated Comprehensive        Catalog.” Behaviour 147.2 (2010): 185-221.JSTOR. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.        <http://www.jstor.org/stable/40599646>.